International Journal of Social Forestry



Board of Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Mustofa Agung Sardjono (Indonesia; social forestry, forest politics; Mulawarman University).

Deputy Editor-in-Chief
Ketut Gunawan (Indonesia; political science, natural resource conflict; Mulawarman University).

Managing Editors
Ivan G. Somlai (Canada; ethnobureaucracy, organizational and institutional development, project management; Director of Global Collaboration, former Coordinator of Kaltim Social Forestry Project-Indonesia; and Associate to the President, World Trade University).

Cristina Eghenter (Italy; anthropology, social forestry; WWF-Indonesia).

Associate Editors
G. Simon Devung (Indonesia; anthropology, social forestry; Mulawarman University).

Makoto Inoue (Japan; forest governance and sociology; The University of Tokyo).

Juan M. Pulhin (The Philippines; human geography, social forestry, forest governance; University of the Philippines Los Banos).

Mirza B. Baig (Pakistan; agriculture, social forestry; Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad).

Sondra Wentzel (Germany; anthropology, social forestry; GTZ).

Assistant Editor
Masayuki Kawai (Japan; community development, socio-economics of agriculture and forestry; The University of Tokyo).





RESUME OF THE MEMBERS OF THE BOARD OF EDITORS

Ivan Gyozo Somlai, MA, CIM

Ivan was internationally educated in Europe, Asia and North America. He has consulted globally at various levels, and in his career at university he conceptualised, resourced, implemented, monitored, coordinated, staffed, and/or evaluated over 50 international contracts and projects in numerous sectors (education, natural resource sciences, health, management/business/IT, technical trades, tourism) in over 20 countries. He acquired allied resources from CIDA, World Bank, Asian Development Bank, international foundations and firms. His prime focus has been developmental, with efforts at collaboratively improving capacities for sustainable change in less advantaged countries.

Major complex, multi-disciplinary projects in various sectors conceptualised, resourced and directly managed by him have included:
- "Kaltim Social Forestry Project"; INDONESIA 1997 to 2004.
- "Roma Community Development"; SLOVAKIA 1998 to 2003.
- "Training in Policy and Service Delivery Project"; in collaboration with the School for Management Consultants of the Academy of National Economy RUSSIA 1999 to 2003.
- "Nepal Rural Health Worker Development Project"; in collaboration with Kathmandu University and Dhulikhel Hospital, NEPAL; 1999 to 2003.
- "Indigenous Tourism Entrepreneurship Development for Chilean Aboriginal and Canadian First Nations", CHILE; June to October 2006.
- "World Trade University Establishment"; CANADA; 2007 to 2008.
- "Tourism Development Initiatives"; MONGOLIA; 2006 to 2009.
- "Communication for Effective Social Services Delivery", PAKISTAN; February 2008 to 2009.

Some of his work--such as in Indonesia, Russia, North Korea and Slovakia--have encompassed conflict environments. Ivan had also been active in conflict mitigation in the Nepal insurgency and is currently researching the conflict in the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan.

He has published dozens of articles, reports, presentations and a couple of books; his chapter on alternative conflict resolution in protracted conflicts, entiled "The Web in the Shadows / Chaayaamaa Maakuraako Jaalo: Anatomy of stakeholder influences in an insurgency", was published in the book "Contentious Politics and Democracy of Nepal" in August 2007.

He was on the founding Technical Sub-committee of the UN-recognised CIDES/Centro Internacional para el Desarollo Sostenible, based in Panama. As of September 2006, he is Director of Global Collaboration (http://globalcollaboration.blogspot.com), through which he pursues international development consulting. His preferred areas are rural health systems and services; social forestry; ecotourism; multiculturalism; decentralisation; governance; executive leadership training; alternative conflict mitigation; motivation of multidisciplinary/ intercultural teams; and ethnobureaucratic analysis. Ivan also is Co-Coordinator of an international committee trying to launch a university hospital in Nepal; and remains as Associate to the President of the World Trade University.

Ivan is a former Olympian, an accomplished mountaineer and Guide. And one of his most meaningful collaborations has been as an enthusiastic co-founder of the IJSF.

Ivan may be contacted at: Ivan.Somlai@alumni.INSEAD.edu


Sondra Wentzel

Sondra holds an MA from the University of Cologne, Germany (her home country) and a PhD from the University of Florida, USA, both in cultural/social anthropology. During her university education in the late 1970s and 1980s, she strove to become a "practical anthropologist", focusing on strategies to support the rights of ethnic minorities, especially indigenous peoples. She did her field research among the Tacana people and highland migrants in the Bolivian Amazon, comparatively analyzing their land-use systems and their strategies to cope with increasing frontier expansion in the region.

After her PhD, Sondra worked briefly as consultant for ISNAR (International Service for National Agricultural Research), Netherlands and ODI (Overseas Development Institute), England and participated in a one-year post-graduate course in international agricultural and rural development at the Technical University in Berlin, Germany. Since 1991, she has been a permanent staff member at GTZ (Gesellschaft for Technische Zusammenarbeit), the German government's agency for technical cooperation, working in Indonesia in the 1990s and Brazil in the 2000s for 6.5 years each, and the years in between in GTZ headquarters. During this time, she has been involved in projects dealing with community nutrition, decentralization and tropical forest management & social forestry (Indonesia) and the demarcation of indigenous lands and follow-up support for indigenous peoples in the Brazilian Amazon.

Parallel to her work as a "development practitioner", and drawing on experiences made in this context, Sondra has maintained contact with academia, participating in associations of development anthropologists and researchers interested in the Amazon, Borneo and common property regimes. Encouraging and supporting host-country partners, including indigenous representatives, to actively participate in such fora is important to her. Some of the resulting papers have been published, mainly in Brazil. Currently, Sondra is on sabbatical for a comparative study on the governance and management of indigenous territories in North America, the Amazon, and Borneo. She accepted with great pleasure the invitation to serve as a member of the editorial board of the IJSF, hoping to be able to contribute with her experiences and contacts.


Cristina Eghenter

Cristina Eghenter received her PhD in Anthropology from Rutgers University, USA in 1995. She was a post-doctoral fellow (1997-1999) at the Centre for South-East Asian Studies, University of Hull, and Visiting Research Fellow at the International Institute for Asian Studies (IIAS), Amsterdam, and the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (ISEAS), Singapore. She now works with WWF-Indonesia as the national Coordinator for Community Empowerment. As Head of the Community Empowerment Unit, she has focused on issues of equity, good governance, sustainable livelihoods and poverty alleviation in conservation. Previously, she directed the Culture and Conservation program (1995-1997) of the WWF Indonesia Kayan Mentarang project (1995-1997) and coordinated community development work at the same project (1999-2003).

Her main fields of interest and expertise include: environmental anthropology; conservation and development, community-based natural resource management, traditional knowledge, indigenous peoples, explanation in the social sciences. She has published extensively on issues of traditional migration, natural resource management and traditional knowledge, anthropology and conservation. Among some of her recent publications: the edited volume (with B. Sellato and Simon Devung). Social Science Research andConservation Management in the Interior of Borneo: Unraveling past and present interactions of people and forests. Bogor (Indonesia): CIFOR (2003); "Of Negotiable Boundaries and Fixed Lines in Borneo: Practices and Views of the Border in the Apo Kayan Region of East Kalimantan." MOUSSONS 11: 133-150 (2007) and "What kind of anthropology for successful conservation management and development?" Walters, B.B., McCay, B.J., West, P., and Lees, S. 2008. Against the Grain: The Vayda Tradition in Human Ecology and Ecological Anthropology. AltaMira Press, Lantham, MD: 195-205 (2008).

Cristina Eghenter can be reached at: ceghenter@wwf.or.id and awing@samarinda.org


Mustofa Agung Sardjono, Prof. Dr. Ir.

Dr. Mustofa Agung Sardjono has been a lecturer and researcher in social forestry and forestry policy at the University of Mulawarman in Indonesia since March, 1983. In 2000 or after about seventeen years in his profession, he gained a top stage of his career, as the first professor in the field of Social/Community Forestry in Indonesia. Since September 2004 he has been appointed as the director of the Center for Social Forestry (CSF), an international network oriented institution where he is also one of the founders/initiators.

He has been involved in social aspects of sustainable tropical rain forest management concepts development for over a decade. He brings extensive experience in forestry planning, rapid rural assessment, and training. After almost fifteen months (April 2001-June 2002) staying at the University of Melbourne (Australia) as a visiting scholar, he was invited as a member of Promotion Commission for a doctoral thesis in Wageningen University the Netherlands (December 2002). It was the first international examination event that had been given to the staff of Mulawarman University. He received similar invitations were from Gajah Mada University (May, 2005), Bogor Agricultural Institute (October 2005) and Brawijaya University (April 2006). At the end of 2005 (November to December 2005) he was selected as one of two indonesians to join International Exchange Program in Green Governance/Green Peace Program at UC Berkeley (USA). His international experience developed more widely when he was invited to be a visiting professor at the Tokyo University (May to September 2007).

As a consultant, he has worked closely with many international institutions and donor organizations (e.g. German Technical Cooperation Agency, Center for International Forestry Research, World Agroforestry Center/ICRAF, the Ford Foundation, WWF Indonesia, the Nature Conservancy and Tropenbos Indonesia), as well as private sectors (e.g. forest concessionaires). In 1996/1997, he was involved in the development of Community Guidance Activities by Forest Concession Holders upon the request of the Ministry of Forestry. Besides CSF, he also initiated the establishment of the Social-Biosphere Foundation (local research and development oriented NGO) in 1998 and Reforestation and Land Rehabilitation Working Group for East-Kalimantan (KKRHL) in 2000.

As a researcher, in 1988 he highlighted the importance of studying traditional community-based forest management. Since the mid of the 90's, the study has been widely promoted by many NGOs as a strategy for Community Forestry Development in Indonesia, especially outside Java. In 1996 after following a very tight competition, he successfully gained a grant from National Research Assembly to lead a 3-year research project in the development of criteria and performance indicators of the Forest Community Guidance Activities.

Dr. Sardjono has extensive international trainings from his Ph.D. study in Germany to professional development activities in Fiji, Switzerland, India, Thailand, USA, the Philippines, Nepal, Vietnam, Australia, South Korea, Malaysia, the Netherlands, Japan, and Brunei Darussalam. During 1982-2007 he has written more than 200 scientific articles, papers, books and teaching materials, some of which are publicly published.


Prof. Dr. Mirza B. Baig

Prof. Dr. Mirza Barjees Baig received his education in both social and natural sciences from USA . He completed his Ph.D. in Natural Resource Management in 1995 from the University of Idaho , Moscow , Idaho , USA . During his doctoral program, he was honored with 1995 Outstanding Graduate Student Award. He also earned his MS degree in International Agricultural Extension in 1992 from the Utah State University , Logan , Utah , USA and was placed on the "Roll of Honour". He also earned another masters with honors in Soil Sciences from University of Agriculture , Faisalabad , Pakistan.

Dr. Baig has published extensively in national and international journals. He has also presented extension education and natural resource management extensively at various international conferences. Particularly issues like degradation of natural resources, deteriorating environment and their relationship with society/community are his areas of interest. He has attempted to develop strategies for conserving natural resources, promoting environment and developing sustainable communities through rural development programs.

Dr. Baig started his scientific career in 1983 as a researcher at the Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad , Pakistan . He worked on the various soil issues. He has been associated with the University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada as the Special Graduate Faculty in the School of Environmental Design and Rural Planning from 2000-2005.

Presently, he is serving, as the Foreign Professor at the Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad , Pakistan . He is also a Visiting Fellow at the Sustainable Development Policy Institute, Islamabad , Pakistan . He serves as a Regional editor of an "International Journal of Agriculture and Biology". Dr. Baig is the member of many national and international professional organizations including Nova Scotia Institute of Agrologists. He is also the "Country Representative" of an international humanitarian organization - Save our World. Dr. Baig has traveled in Europe and the Middle East and has got a vast experience of working with the international community.

At the Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU), along with many publications, he has produced books on Natural Resource Management in Pakistan ; Social Forestry in Pakistan. Presently he is also acting as the Coordinator for M.Sc. Rural Development degree programme. He is also involved in teaching and research. He is also in the process of revising curricula for M.Sc. (Hons.) Agricultural Extension and M.Sc. (Hons.) Forestry Extension degree programmes at the AIOU.

He can be reached at drbaig2@yahoo.ca.


Ketut Gunawan

Ketut Gunawan has been a lecturer and researcher at the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences and a core staff at the Center for Social Forestry, Mulawarman University, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Currently, he is the Deputy Director of the East Kalimantan Institute of Government (under such a Faculty) whose main mission is to prepare and produce a well-trained undergraduate degree government cadres and practitioners for district and city governments across East Kalimantan, Indonesia.

Ketut Gunawan has extensive training in governmental and political sciences as well as political ecology from his completed undergraduates studies in Gadjahmada University, Indonesia (1988), Master studies in Monash University, Australia (1997), Ph.D studies in the University of Bonn, Germany (2004), to professional development courses in Thailand, the Philippines, Japan, Sweden, and Finland. In Thailand in particular, he attended Conflict Resolution Training in Natural Resource Management (organized by RECOFTC), and in Sweden and Finland he completed "Advanced International Training in Conflict Resolution" (organized by Uppsala University).

In the Faculty he teaches methodological and theoretical subjects, political science-related courses, and policy analysis. In the Center, he is responsible for providing consultation, conducting research, designing and facilitating training in conflict resolution to forest stakeholders. He has been invited as conflict resolution trainer and facilitator on natural resource conflicts by government institutions and private companies.

As lecturer in politics, he is familiar with the discourse of conflict and has invested interests in conflict analysis and conflict resolution in natural resources management. He has been involved in various research activities on conflict of interests between central and local government, conflict resolution in forest resource management, the role of local culture in sustaining forest resources, the dynamics of forest communities' livelihood strategies in a changing socio-economic environment, etc. He had also spent his time for five months in the Philippines and Thailand to conduct research on armed conflicts in Mindanao (Southern Philippine) and southernmost provinces of Thailand.

He has published numerous publications, and one of them is "The Politics of the Indonesian Rainforest: A Rise of Forest Conflicts in East Kalimantan during Indonesia's Early Stage of Democratisation" (Goetingen, Germany: Cuvillier Verlag, 2004, 374 pp.).

With regards to periodical publication, he has experiences in managing periodicals, among other things, the Journal of Social and Political Sciences, where he had been its Editor-in-Chief for eight years (1998-2006).

Ketut Gunawan has a deep understanding of other cultures and can be contacted via email to: kettgun[at]yahoo.com


Juan M. Pulhin
Juan M. Pulhin is Professor and UP Scientist II of the Department of Social Forestry and Forest Governance (DSFFG), College of Forestry and Natural Resources (CFNR), University of the Philippines Los Banos (UPLB). He was a Visiting Associate Professor at the University of Tokyo from January to April 2007. He was Associate Dean of CFNR and a former Department Chair of DSFFG.
 He served as a Lead Author in the Adaptation Chapter in the Working Group II of the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and a Lead Author in the Forest and Woodland Systems Chapter of the 2006 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. He was also involved in several climate change related research and development projects foremost of which is the Assessment of Impacts, Vulnerability, and Adaptation to Climate Change in Selected Watersheds and Communities in Southeast Asia. He is a co-editor and co-author in three chapters of the book Climate Change and Vulnerability and co-author in a chapter of the book Climate Change and Adaptation, both published in 2008 by Earthscan. Presently, he is the Philippine Project Leader of Improving Equity and Livelihood in Community Forestry which is a global collaborative research project of the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) and the Resource Rights Initiatives (RRI).

Dr. Pulhin has completed 25 researches/studies on various topics involving socio-economic, political/institutional and environmental dimensions of forestry including forest tenure, decentralization, forest rehabilitation, and environmental justice as well as on impacts, vulnerability and adaptation of local communities and institutions to climate variability and extremes. He has also developed and applied various participatory and multi-stakeholder techniques in conducting community forestry and climate-change related researches and assessments. As outputs of his numerous researches, he has authored/co-authored 12 peer-reviewed scientific articles; co-edited 2 books; contributed 15 chapters in 9 different books; authored/co-authored 11 articles in published conference proceedings and 10 policy papers; and presented more than 40 other papers in international conferences, trainings, seminars, and professional meetings in more than 20 different countries.

He has also served as social forestry/community forestry consultant to international and national organizations such as the Asian Development Bank (ADB), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO-UN), Ford Foundation, Regional Community Training Center for the Asia and the Pacific Region (RECOFTC), Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), National Power Corporation, and a number of international and national NGOs in more than 10 major projects including feasibility study preparation, land use development planning, project appraisal, national assessment project, and monitoring and evaluation.

In recognition of his achievements, Dr. Pulhin is a recipient of the following awards: 1) Co-recipient of 2007 Nobel Peace Prize Award shared with Al Gore and the members of the United Nation-Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC); 2) Co-recipient of the 2006 ZAYED International Prize for the Environment for Scientific and Technological Achievements in Environment given to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (of which he is one of the Lead Authors) by the Zayed International Prize on February 6, 2006 in Dubai, United Emirates; 3) UP Scientist II, given by the University of the Philippines System covering the period of January 2008-December 2010; 4) Outstanding Scientist Award in Socioeconomics and Policy for 2006, given by the Forests and Natural Resources Research Society of the Philippines, Inc. (FORESPI); 5) UPLB Alumni Association 2006 Distinguished Alumni Award for Institutional Service for the College of Forestry and Natural Resources; 6) CFNR Outstanding Alumnus for Institutional Service for 2006; 7) UPLB 2000 Outstanding Teacher Award in Social Science and Humanities (2000); 8) UPLB-CFNR Best Teacher Award in Social Science (1999); and 9) Vicente Lu Professorial Chair from July 2006-June 2007; and 10) Dean Gregorio T. Zamuco Professorial Chair in Social Forestry from July 2000-June 2001 and July 2001-June 2002.

Dr. Pulhin obtained his Bachelor of Science Degree in Forestry and his Master's Degree at the University of the Philippines at Los Banos. He holds a Doctoral Degree in Geographical Sciences (Human Geography) in 1997 from the Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.


Makoto Inoue, Ph.D.

Makoto Inoue is Professor of Forest Environmental Studies at the University of Tokyo, Japan. His specialty is common-pool resource governance in accordance with the field reality, based on the expertise of sociology and anthropology as well as forest policy science. He led international research project and edited the book "People and Forest: Policy and Local Reality in Southeast Asia, the Russian Far East, and Japan" (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003), and contributed as one of the editors of "The State of the Environment in Asia 2005/2006" (Springer-Verlag, 2005). Dr. Inoue is now developing design principles for collaborative local forest governance.


Simon Devung

Simon Devung earned his Master in Social Education in 1974 from Sanata Dharma Catholic University, Yogyakarta, Master in Educational Administration in 1983 from UPI, Bandung and Master in Anthropology in 1996 from UI, Jakarta.

He has been a lecturer, trainer and researcher in Social, Cultural and Environmental Sciences at Mulawarman University in Indonesia since 1974. He was Director of the Center for Social Forestry (CSF), Mulawarman University from 1997 to 2004 and now as the Coordinator of CSF Research and Policy Development Section. He has been involved in a number of Social, Cultural and Environmental Projects in East Kalimantan for over 17 years and possesses a sound knowledge of East Kalimantan cultures and nature. His experiences these fields are among others as : 1) the Counterpart of Dr.Bernard Sellato in the Culture and Conservation Programs of the WWF Kayan Mentarang Conservation Project as field research Supervisor from 1990 to 1993 ; 2) Associate Researcher for the Inventory and Documentation of East Kalimantan Cultures Project of the East Kalimantan Provincial Office of the Department of Education and Culture from 1984 to 1992 ; 3) Team Leader for the Social, Cultural and Environmental Assessment of East Kalimantan Isolated Communities Development of East Kalimantan Provincial Office of the Department of Social Affairs from 1995 to 1997 ; 4) Team Leader of the WWF Sundaland Bioregion - Economic and Socio-Cultural Studies in Sebuku Watershed, Nunukan District, East Kalimantan - in 1999 ; 5) Socio-economic and Cultural Specialist in the Environment Resource Management [ERM] Team for the Environmental Impact Analysis Study for the Unocal Seturian Gas Field and the Counterpart of the Collaborative Development Action [CDA] Expert for the Monitoring of Unocal Community Development and Community Relation Programs in 2004.

He got trainings in Social Forestry and Conflict Resolution at RECOFTC, Kasetsart University Bangkok and for a number of years involved in the Indonesian Social Forestry Training Program of the Dephutbun-RECOFTC and Member of the Steering Committee of the RECOFTC-DANCED Training Support Program in 1999 - 2001.

In the field of editorship, he has some basic experiences as : 1) the Editor of WWF Kayan Mentarang National Park Project publication series in 1993 - 1996 ; 2) Co-Editor of the "Social Science Research and Conservation Management in Borneo" published by the WWF-CIFOR-ITTO, Jakarta in 2003 ; and 3) as the Co-Editor of the "Indonesia Country Report on Local People in Forest Management and the Politics of Participation" published by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Hayama, Japan in 2004.

He is now working on his Doctorate in the Tropical Forest Socio - Economics and Environment at the Post Graduate Program, Mulawarman University. He can be reached at sim_devung@yahoo.com.


Masayuki Kawai

Masayuki Kawai is a Research Fellow of Forest Environmental Studies at the University of Tokyo, Japan. His specialty is community development and the socio-economics of agriculture and forestry. He received MA in 2006 and PhD in 2011 in Agriculture from the University of Tokyo. He had studied under the “Agreement on Academic Exchange between Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, the University of Tokyo and Mulawarman University” from 2006 to 2011. His latest research is focused on proposing alternative development strategy for oil palm plantations in East Kalimantan, Indonesia.