Abstracts



International Journal of Social Forestry (IJSF), 2011, 4 (1):1-16


INCREASING WOMEN ACCESS TO FINANCIAL RESOURCES THROUGH MICRO-CREDIT OF NEPAL's COMMUNITY FORESTRY


Ridish K. Pokharel1, Achyut R. Gyawali1, Ram L. Yadav1 and Krishna R. Tiwari

Abstract
Nepal's community forestry has adopted micro-credit as a major activity to provide additional benefits to women and the poor. The paper aims to investigate whether the micro-credit benefits women, as expected, and uses primary data of 84 community forest user groups from different five districts and 408 individuals who obtained loans from the community forest user group funds. It uses a questionnaire survey as an information collection instrument. The average value of loans received by an individual is Nrs4,706 which is being invested in income and non-income generating activities. The paper concludes that women receive smaller value of loans, as compared to men. Moreover, poor women receive lesser value of loans than those of non-poor women. Women tend to invest higher percentage of loaned money to income generating activities, and tend to be younger and less educated as compared to men, implying there being a need to increase efforts to educate women.

Keywords:
gender, community forestry, Asia, CFUG funds, value of loans
  
International Journal of Social Forestry (IJSF), 2011, 4 (1): 17-31

TOWARD COMMUNICATION, EDUCATION AND AWARENESS RAISING FOR PARTICIPATORY FOREST MANAGEMENT: A CASE STUDY OF MUFINDI DISTRICT, TANZANIA


Manyisye K. Mpokigwa , Anthony Z. Sangeda , Said Iddi

Abstract
This paper is based on an analysis of the role of communication, education and public awareness raising (CEPA) for communities involved in Participatory Forest Management (PFM) in Mufindi District, Tanzania. Data were collected using household questionnaires, key informant interviews, personal observation, and PRA techniques. Qualitative data were subjected to content analysis while quantitative data were analysed by use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Multiple regression model was developed to explore the relationship between community participation in forest management and socio-economic factors and CEPA. Results revealed that CEPA positively influenced community participation in PFM and it was statistically significant. A number of other socio-economic factors like availability of extension services and land ownership had also positive influence and were likewise statistically significant. Group methods such as village meetings and seminars were found to be more effective communication channels as opposed to mass media tools like Radio. Group methods were superior because of the high level of interaction and feedback opportunities. The study concluded that CEPA is an important tool in mobilizing conservation activities but not the only factor to encourage farmers or communities to effectively participate in forestry activities. Government and conservation NGOs may therefore continue using CEPA in scaling up PFM activities in other areas in Tanzania.

Keywords:
community participation, CEPA, PFM, socio-economic factors, Mufindi District, Tanzania.  
 

International Journal of Social Forestry (IJSF), IJSF), 2011, 4 (1):32-62


NATURAL FOREST RESERVES MANAGEMENT FROM LOCAL PERSPECTIVES: A CHALLENGE FOR DEVELOPING A PARTICIPATORY FOREST MANAGEMENT MODEL


Amani Abdel Rahim Kobbail

Abstract
This research tried to assess and investigate the traditional management system of natural forest reserves pre reservation and its impact on sustainable production. The study also attempted to see how local people as individuals, or groups, perceive forest resources to end with a management model for sustainable development. Two forest reserves sites at Kordofan and Elgedaref states of Sudan were selected. Research methods applied were: a social survey wherein two forms of questionnaires were used for data collection. This method was followed by participants’ observations, participatory rapid appraisal and review of the documentary sources. The analysis reveals that most of the land in the study areas is legally state owned. However, villagers have de-facto individual ownership. Ownership of trees on private land was based on the species. The results show that before Government policy of forests reserve and registration in government ownership, the local community has the control over the common property resource and they traditionally used to manage the resource surrounding them. The study show that trees and forests are highly perceived by the local people and that local people see the future management of these forests in the collaboration with government and other actors. The study revealed that the communities' self-generating institutions are the only acceptable channels and linkages with the top planning bodies. The study proposed a management model based on understanding people’s perception, aspirations, needs and objectives. The study ends with conclusions and recommendations for policy and practice with regards to natural forest reserves management.

Keywords:
forests, participatory management, sustainable development.  
 

International Journal of Social Forestry (IJSF), IJSF), 2011, 4 (1):63-85


AN OVERVIEW OF POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORKS IMPACTING THE USE OF NON TIMBER FOREST PRODUCTS IN CENTRAL AFRICA


Ngome-Tata Precillia Ijang, Sven Walter, Ngueguim Jules. R.

Abstract
This study describes an exploratory data gathering process aimed at constructing a rudimentary image of non timber forest products (NTFP) in national, regional and international policy processes. Primary data was collected through guided interviews and informal discussions. Respondents surveyed included various ministry officials and representatives of the private sector in Cameroon and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) as well as knowledgeable experts on the subject matter. Secondary data was also collected through internet searches and document analysis. Policies affecting NTFPs in Central Africa are inferred across a wide range of forestry, financial, agricultural, cultural, pharmaceutical and commercial domains. For edible NTFP, food security, health, sanitary and phytosanitary policies are usually applicable. Other policies on sustainable development and environmental management also influence NTFPs directly and indirectly. At the international level, policies affecting NTFPs are generally preoccupied with climates and ecosystem conditions, the conservation of endangered species and assurance of balance of trade between countries. These policies articulate around the Millennium Development Goals in which NTFPs could contribute to the realization of goals 1, 7 and 8. At the regional level, NTFP policies are oriented towards the better management of trans-boundary forest resources to ensure equitable and rational benefit sharing from forest resources between participating countries, protection of national territory and maintenance of peace within the sub region. These policies articulate around the Commission of Central Africa Forest (COMIFAC)) initiative

Keywords:
action plan, collaboration, institutional framework, NTFP, policy framework  
 

International Journal of Social Forestry (IJSF), 2011, 4 (1):86-112


THE ROLE OF BOSWELLIA AND COMMIPHORA SPECIES IN RURAL LIVELIHOOD SECURITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION IN THE HORN OF AFRICA: CASE STUDY OF NORTH-EASTERN KENYA


Badal Ahmed Hassan, Edinam K. Glover, Olavi Luukkanen, Ben Chikamai, Ramni Jamnadass, Miyuki Iiyama, Markku Kanninen

Abstract
This paper focuses on local people’s knowledge and attitudes towards vulnerability to climate change and impacts—including adaptation measures—on their lives. It also examines the important role of the aromatic resin producing species of Boswellia and Commiphora species in alleviating poverty, providing a large variety of products for household consumption, direct sale, and generally protecting the environment. A survey was conducted in the Wajir district of north-eastern Kenya among four community livelihood categories, through questionnaire based interviews. Results from descriptive statistics suggest that management of Boswellia and Commiphora species for goods and services has a definite added economic advantage, both at community and national levels, and lends incentive in combating land degradation based on the principle of multiple uses. This study demonstrates that Kenya adopts an integrated approach addressing the environmental and socio-economic aspects of the impacts of climate change and integrates strategies for poverty eradication into efforts to adapt to climate change. The study emphasises the potential for using these species, as a component of a silvo-pastoral system, for not only fulfilling subsistence requirement, but also for increasing land productivity, improving the economic condition of farmers and helping to achieve policy impact at the government level, the private sector and civil society on this subject of climatic change and adaptation.

Keywords:
adaptation, resins, boswellia, climate change, commiphora, livelihood, north-eastern Kenya.  

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