International Journal of Social Forestry



Abstracts

International Journal of Social Forestry (IJSF), 2011, 4 (2):113-138

 OVERCOMING VULNERABILITY OF PRIVATELY OWNED SMALL-SCALE FOREST THROUGH COLLECTIVE MANAGEMENT UNIT ESTABLISHMENT: A CASE STUDY OF GUNUNG KIDUL DISTRICT, YOGYAKARTA IN INDONESIA

Takahiro Fujiwara, San Afri Awang, Wahyu Tri Widayanti, Ratih Madya Septiana1, Himmah Bariatul, Mamat Rahmat, Agus Suyanto, Noriko Sato

Abstract

The timber shortage caused by imbalance between supply and demand is a serious problem in Indonesia. In this context, Privately Owned Forests (POFs) have been spotlighted to meet the demand. The characteristics of POF basically managed by individual farmers, however, have high vulnerability to secure stable wood supply. In order to overcome the vulnerability, a Privately Owned Forest Management Unit (POFMU), which shifts the POF managements from individual management to collective management, was initiated in Gunung Kidul (GK) district, Yogyakarta in 2004. Subsequently, the local people’s cooperative association was established in 2006; and the POFs have been managed using Indonesian forest certification. The objectives of this study are to examine 1) the organization structure of POF management and 2) obstructive factors which impede further implementation of POFMU. Literature research, field observation as well as interviews of key informants and general members of the cooperative association were conducted. Three types of local associations for multi-layered POF management and forest certification were found to contribute to an integrating small-scale POF for joint forest management. On the other hand, harvesting immature trees for personal economic factors, forest shrinkage and land absentee problem due to social factors were found to impede further POFMU implementation. In order to meet the wood demand from wood industries and market, local farmers have to navigate both factors over long periods. While POFMU and cooperative associations as self-help efforts help local people, economic and social support by third parties is also important to sustain local people’s motivation.

Keywords: farm forestry, individual management, collective management, cooperative association, forest certification
  

International Journal of Social Forestry (IJSF), 2011, 4 (2):139-152

 IS COMMUNITY FORESTRY DECREASING THE INEQUALITY AMONG ITS USERS? STUDY ON IMPACT OF COMMUNITY FORESTRY ON INCOME DISTRIBUTION AMONG DIFFERENT USERS GROUPS IN NEPAL

Badri Khanal

Abstract

The present study was conducted to see how community forestry affects income distribution among the users by observing three community forests of Nawalparasi District, Nepal. The total sample of 90 included 30 from each community forestry group for the study. This total sample was divided into three income groups (i.e. high, medium and low). The shapes of Lorenz Curves indicated that the inequality among users of community forestry increased after implementation of community forestry. However, at intra-group level, the inequality decreased for all income groups of the population after community forestry. The result of Gini coefficient also signifies increased inequality among users. The Gini was 0.47 before CF which increased to 0.52 after community forestry. However, Gini coefficients for individual income groups decreased after community forestry. The Lorenz Asymmetry Coefficients showed that, the inequality present among users was due to the presence of large individuals of low income group both before CF (coefficient 0.66) and after CF (coefficient 0.94).The Robin Hood index suggested that, in order to establish equality among users, the income that should be transferred from higher income to lower income group increased after community forestry. The Herfindahl index also increased after CF, indicating increased concentration of income resulting in increased inequality among users.

Keywords:
community forestry, income group, inequality, Nawalparasi, Nepal  
 

International Journal of Social Forestry (IJSF), 2011, 4 (2):153-179

CONFRONTING PEOPLE-ORIENTED FOREST MANAGEMENT REALITIES IN BANGLADESH: AN ANALYSIS OF ACTORS’ PERSPECTIVE

K.K. Islam , Hyakumura Kimihiko , Fujiwara Takahiro1, Noriko Sato1

Abstract
The shift in traditional forest management to a people-oriented forestry (PF) approach was initiated by the government of Bangladesh in the early 1980s with the view that it can simultaneously address natural resource management and rural development. This paper explores the reality of PF programs in Bangladesh by focusing on different actors and interactions between those actors and challenges in PF programs. This is to analyze the role of power relations, exclusion and inclusion, policy making and institutional factors in PF. Data were obtained through participation and observation, interviews, analysis and literature review. The paper shows that power and other social relations within and between the central governments, forest departments and other mid-level actors in PF programs have had a key influence in determined who is excluded and who is included and whose knowledge will be acknowledged. Despite this, the dominant roles played by top level actors over middle and lower levels actors have hindered the overall success and main goals of PF programs. Moreover, the involvement of poor people in PF programs has a deep-rooted dependency on the local political leaders and elite, and often these mid-level actors have built up a strong network together with forest officials in order to influence the participant selection process, and thus enjoy undue benefits and include non-poor in PF programs. Therefore, the ambitious policies introduced by the top-level actors will most likely not benefit the poor and target groups unless strict actions are taken to overcome the current institutional and power-based obstacles.

Keywords:
people-oriented forestry, decentralization, actor, interaction, power-relation, institutional factors
 
International Journal of Social Forestry (IJSF), 2011, 4 (2):180-196.

AGROFORESTS’ POTENTIALS FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE LIVELIHOODS AND FOOD SECURITY IN GUINEAN HIGHLAND SAVANNAHS


Pierre Marie Mapongmetsem , Claudette Baye-Niwah, Moksia Froumsia, Cecile Flore Kossebe, and Yougouda Hamawa

Abstract
Eliciting the impacts of agroforests on the wellbeing of farmers will provide valuable information for the design of sustainable desirable production systems. Such studies have been relatively few. Eleven types of home gardens existing in the Guinean Highland Savannah zone were surveyed for one year. For each type, 10 farmers were involved. A record list as management tool has been developed in participatory manner with farmers to evaluate flow of products and income generated each month. Households were visited twice a month. The study showed that the total yield was 112.43t year-1 among which 35.2t were consumed, 30.12t were commercialized, 16.3t were gifted and the rest of production was kept. The quantity of food bought from the market was 1.6t year-1. The gifts received from relatives were 13.2t year-1. The cereals were the most consumed and bought from the market by the farmers, whereas fruits were the most commercialized. Food products were harvested all the year long. Home gardens occupy an important place in the farmer’s life by improving the daily diet, consolidating and creating relationships, generating income and using in treatment of various diseases.

Keywords:
agroforests, production, consumption, gifts, income, wellbeing, Cameroon  
 

International Journal of Social Forestry (IJSF), 2011, 4 (2):197-211


A CASE STUDY ON THE GARO ETHNIC PEOPLE OF THE SAL (Shorea robusta) FORESTS IN BANGLADESH


Nur Muhammed, Sheeladitya Chakma, Md. Farhad Hossain Masum, Md. Mohitul Hossain, and Gerhard Oesten

 Abstract
Garo is one of the major indigenous communities in Bangladesh with distinct ethnic identities. An empirical study was conducted on this community living in the Madhupur Sal (Shorea robusta) forests of Bangladesh. Our objectives were to analyze the diverse socio-economic and cultural aspects of the Garo people with regards to their livelihoods. We also attempted to understand the underlying causes of prevailing conflicts with the Forest Department, and their adverse affects on the forests and indigenous people of the areas. It was found that this indigenous group has been experiencing countless challenges and their human rights are consistently being abused against, both by the law and its implementation. With multiple claims over the same piece of land and illegal settlements of non-Garo population in the forests, the Garo peoples have become a marginalized ethnic group in their own traditional land. This study determined that if sensitive land tenure issues remain unsettled, sustainability of the forests and lands cannot be ensured, even with on-going participatory social forestry practices in the Sal forests. The Government needs to recognize the Garo population as indigenous people of the area, which would legitimize them as caretakers of the land and forests resulting in the initiation of effective policies for sustainable management. It is recommended that existing national policies and laws that adversely affect their rights and life are reviewed and re-evaluated. The unique culture of the Garo population needs to be preserved through proper documentation and Governmental recognition.

Keywords:
Garo, culture, land conflict, Sal forests, forest management, Bangladesh  

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